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  • br Solid cancers have been reported to have

    2020-08-28


    Solid cancers have been reported to have a distinct latency time as compared to hematological and lymphatic malignancies. Therefore, the risk exposure Anandamide (REP), i.e. the time-period during which exposure to occupational carcinogens are considered to have contributed to cancer incidence in 2015, was assumed to be from 1995 to 2015 for hematological cancers (short REP), and from 1965 to 2005 for solid cancers (long REP). This corresponds to a latency time of 0–20 years for the first, and of 10–50 years for the latter (Rushton et al., 2010).
    2.2.1. Estimation of the prevalence of the ever exposed population over the short exposure period
    To estimate the prevalence of exposure to occupational agents over the short REP, cross-sectional prevalence of exposure from the AGRICAN (Leveque-Morlais et al., 2015), SUMER (Arnaudo et al., 2006), CAREX (Vincent et al., 1999) and national labor force survey databases (Direction des statistiques démographiques et sociales 2016) were applied to the 2015 French population data by age and sex (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques 2015). For the agents that were included in the Matgéné program (Fevotte et al., 2011), we used the 2007 prevalences of exposure as provided from this database, applied to the 2015 French population. Finally, to assess cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation over the short REP by sex, we simulated a cohort of workers over 1995–2015, using population data combined with the number of workers exposed and their average an-nual exposure dose reported annually from 1996 to 2015 (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, 2015) (See note S1 detailing the method to assess cumulative occupational exposure to ionizing radia-tion).
    2.2.2. Estimation of the prevalence of the ever exposed population over the long exposure period
    Similarly, several methods were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure over the long REP. The prevalence of ever exposed to pesti-cides over the long REP was directly obtained from the AGRICAN da-tabase (Leveque-Morlais et al., 2015). This was then applied to the number of farmers in France, based on the national labor force survey, to determine the proportion of the French population ever occupa-tionally exposed to pesticides. The cumulative prevalence of exposure to ionizing radiation was assessed over the long REP using the same cohort simulation as for the short REP, but over the period 1965–2005 (see note S1 detailing the method to assess cumulative occupational exposure to ionizing radiation). The same method was used to estimate prevalence of shift workers over the long REP. Finally, for the re-maining carcinogens, to take into account the exposure changes over time, the agents were categorized into three groups: (i) agents which have been used with no change since 1965, (ii) agents very little used after 2000 (e.g. asbestos, benzene), and (iii) agents where there has been a moderate decrease in use since 1965 (Table S1 of supplemental material). Based on these categories, age- and sex-specific adjustment factors were applied to the cross-sectional exposure prevalence for these agents obtained from the SUMER, CAREX and the national labor
    C. Marant Micallef et al. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 222 (2019) 22–29
    Table 1
    Data sources for exposure to occupational carcinogens.
    Data source Description/Data available Occupational exposures Dates
    Random sample of 50,000 salaried workers/Prevalence of exposure to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 1994 agents 1,3-Butadiene
    Bis(chloromethyl)ether
    Beryllium and compounds
    Aromatic amines 2003
    Arsenic and inorganic arsenic
    compounds
    Asbestos
    Benzene
    Cadmium compounds
    Chromium (VI) compounds
    Dichloromethane
    Engine exhaust, diesel
    Ethylene oxide
    Formaldehyde
    Nickel compounds
    Polychlorinated biphenyls
    Wood dust
    Cobalt metal with tungsten carbide
    Lead compounds, inorganic
    Silica dust
    Trichloroethylene
    Perchlorethylene
    Based on active population data: estimation of numbers of workers Acid mists, strong inorganic 1990–1993 exposed by sector/Numbers of salaried workers exposed to agents
    National labour force survey (Direction des statistiques démographiques et sociales 2016) 
    Representative survey of people aged ≥15/Numbers of workers by Iron and steel founding 2007 occupation or sector in 2007 Rubber manufacturing industry
    Art glass, glass containers and
    pressed ware (manufacture of)
    Painter
    Hairdresser or barber
    Shiftwork that involves circadian
    disruption
    AGRICAN study, (Leveque-Morlais et al., 2015) French cohort of 180,000 farmers/Lifetime exposure to selected